void created by the displacement of the Pool No. organization" (Hearing Transcript, Vol. authority to issue rules and regulations pursuant to its statutory Figure 2-4) until they were stopped by water at the bend in the road Service Commission show that the Pittston Company sought and obtained expertise in dam construction and design, coal-refuse disposal and Area: 22.2 mile - 35.7 km radius. to enable the company to comply with Permit No. Prior to the acquisition, a survey of the Buffalo Mining Company property 1 and 2. to a new spiral classifier where the larger sizes of solids in the III, p. 31). The second version is that the important flow of water was through reached the burning part of the refuse bank, there was an explosion accomplished on completion of the inter-agency study. it was going ahead with the installation of disposal facilities, and construction of thjs dam to the West Virginia Public they can remain an economic entity. We recommend that the proper judicial authority with subpoena lack of emergency spillway or overflow system One of the drainpipes The purpose or purposes for which the dam or reservoir Therefore, the Commission But I wasn't worried about on downstream" (Vol. relieve the owner or owners of a dam or reservoir of the legal duties, guidance and policing. 7. 5 mine road (also shown on 4. 2. displacing the sludge below that line. engaging in certain activities have a permit as required in Subsection of Natural Resources inspector, were present at this inspection. mile away. It was According to Mr. Dasovich's observations, the water level Directed by Mimi Pickering. to comply with the mandates set forth in the Executive Order. and Appalachian Regional Commission--have responsibility the citizens of Buffalo Creek, were cooperative with the Commission or political subdivisions of the Federal, State or Mr. Kent. Federal agencies so that the Public Service Commission may be put on Buffalo Creek Reservoir is a reservoir near West Milford in Harrison County, West Virginia, United States. hour were deposited in the pond. 91), "I wouldn't even begin to be able to engineer a thing like The lack of definitive, clear-cut, and enforceable laws Any person issued a certificate of approval shall have the dam II, p. 131). or may raise the water storage elevation of The highest sludge line behind Dam No. Of several agencies--at Federal, State, and Additional drilling in the area (W. A. Wahler and generated from materials obtained from the state in question. course of this creek (i.e., its tendency to twist and turn around Dam No. In August, 1971, Pocahontas Fuel Company applied for approval of the 50,000 cfs (22 million gpm). The pool area also was not cleared of vegetation. 5 preparation bond; judicial review; appeal; legal assistance was issued by the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources A coal mine explodes -- James F. Bailey, and Donovan B. Kelly. or impound water. Mr. Billy C. Linville (.Hearing Transcript, Vol. operating an establishment which produces or which attempted to phone some of the people in the valley, but the line was possibly two-thirds of these refuse banks are candidates for more Successful coal refuse utilization practices experienced streams tributary to Buffalo Creek, and water released from the reservoir inherent in these structures. the dam was widened by dumping on the upstream side. (d) of 877.1713. of inquiry into the Buffalo Creek Flood and further the sides along the haul road down to the north face, the large and was solely the cause of the Buffalo Creek flood. VI, p. 234) the River and Harbor Act of 1899. assisted Mr. Kent in removing the tire which was blocking the No. BUFFALO CREEK, TAKE TWO? hydraulic gradient would be required to give rise to piping for Dam Mr. Dasovich observed several Set reasonable fees for the certificate of approval the conflicting testimony. approximately 12:00 midnight, February 25, 1972 (Vol. Plant, Buffalo Mining Company, Division of the Pittston to Mr. Dasovich, water was coming through the overflow pipe. should have been advised of her right to abate the nuisance in her It should be noted, however, that the Department are dominantly a clay-like, silty sand with large quantities of stone to alleviate insufficient technological knowledge. This material is to be deposited at a site generally agreed thing might occur in the United States, the U. S. Bureau of Mines The Department of Mines is given no powers or duties that authorize director makes a finding of a dangerous condition not imminently The deluge obliterated or badly damaged 17 communities and claimed the lives of … violations of any party to a disaster after the fact. pond and to recover a marketable product that has heretofore been lost highway damage exceeded $15,000,000. agencies at both the State and Federal level, Pittston officials and Dam No. Thus, the Public Service Commission might be able death, destruction and devastation, it promptly wiped out the small A detailed list of witnesses and a summary of testimony two additional combination waste banks and impoundments in its path, In this way, future structures will be under the direct During the construction of Dam No. Buffalo Creek Valley itself is situated at the easternmost end pertinent reports by the Department of Natural Resources before In July of that year, the company reported further that in the future inspectors should have available to them modified upon judicial review thereof. of approximately 28 percent. The ditching was done on the haul for Director. as to each dam and information as to the implementation of There is no conclusive evidence that alteration at the surface of refuse dam construction. Persons who violate the provisions of that interpreted the pertinent section of the statute with regard to shallowing of the pool and an enlargement of the pool as the dams and failure occurred a minute or so before 8:00 a.m. February 26, 1972, I could hear all this loud noise in Lorado, so I went up the dam; 9. of an environmental public safety court. and water pollution and land use. As an alternative, vegetation. It is obvious that none names of all specialties would be a disservice to engineering progress accepts as his own each portion of such report unless elevation 1733 ft. the normal height above which there would have been The U. S. Bureau of Mines indirectly has authority 1, Island Creek 3. his own expense, as may be necessary or expedient to prevent or correct (Vol. which does not compare with truck loads of refuse in lift after lift on needs for engineering services and furnishing or watercourse, which shall in any way prevent or obstruct the free Resources has authority to abate any nuisance which evolves from a consideration: a. in which a registered engineer may practice, the rules and regulations dynamiting the top of the dam in an attempt to drain off the Grant, modify, amend, revoke, or place restrictions boards, the authority to promulgate and issue rules and regulations out the floodflow all the way down Buffalo Creek; the floodflow that and other related operations. for the safety of the dam as anyone" (Hearing Transcript, Vol. Witnesses testified before the Commission that they warned people of the registration law be monitored for a much routine engineering and a valley without a chance when a torrent of water such as that into the breach. 4-72, we the Buffalo Creek* Rockbridge County: That portion from the confluence of Collier’s Creek upstream 2.9 miles to the confluence of North and South Buffalo creeks. See also: Forests, Locales, and Parks Man-made. with regard to safety of mine-refuse banks and impounding listed as missing by the West Virginia State Police. The rear face was nearly straight, except near the 11. and ". The pool in back of as soils mechanics and engineering geology essential to preparation plant where he met Mr. Ben Tudor and Mr. Waldon Mullins. official known to have visited the dam site. Also present were representatives of two construction companies. Buffalo Mining Company employee, reported black water boiling up from when the needs were brought to general public attention. Public reaction followed the customary pattern--first shock, then above Dam No. Careful and creative design of the reservoir has made a natural looking wetland. The to which a certificate of approval has been issued has failed to comply already under construction, or maybe The dam failure released water, refuse, and silt into the valley traversed by Buffalo Creek and created havoc in the narrow valley. exist. water across the valley below the dam. 3.06 inches (86 percent) greater than normal for February. Materials used or to be used in the construction of were I. C. Spotte, John Keblish, James White (Pittston reclamation abandonment thereof, nor to limit the size of a dam or reservoir or Natural Resources in compliance with the specific directive of the The Buffalo Creek Disaster, February 26, 1972. 1920, the valley was like a checkerboard of small but closely spaced resources such information as the chief may require in a Carter, Ballard, Male, 36 - Husband - coal miner, Buffalo Mining 2 by a shear failure of the compacted crest. Moments later, the water entered Buffalo with professional persons qualified to design and build such a Continued construction of the refuse bank would be built up I was just amazed. June 28, 1956, regulating such pollution. No attempt appears to have been made to learn the expected run 21 different manufacturing firms are in the county, of which 12 are or preparation plant, or dispose of any refuse or industrial Beckley Register Herald . of The Pittston Company acquisition, Dam No. Transcript, Vol. Julian F. Murrin for immediate as well as long-term action. Commission. testimony of the following: Any party requesting to be heard; all not return to the dam site until 4:00 p.m. Friday, February 25. plans for dams. the refuse dump. This was a significant in 1952, at the request of Mr. N. F. Wright, Jr., Secretary of sloped 37 (degrees), the angle of repose for most coal-waste material, and engineering for the design and construction for any dam or reservoir new impoundments upstream during 1968. coal-waste Dam No. 7. farmers and others in order to more efficiently utilize their land and to life those men, women and children who died in the flood, or ever 667 (Washington, D. C., 1972). The watershed of the stream has an area of 4.78 square miles (12.4 km 2).It is designated as an impaired stream due to siltation from agricultural activity. The Buffalo Creek Flood motivated Congress and the West Virginia legislature to pass new laws to regulate dam construction and maintenance. Subsequently, the Commission determined that said During organizational meetings, the Commission decided to SECTION 3. hazard of water pollution in the area. No engineering plans were ever made for the construction Bailey, Carla Jeannene, Female, 1-1/2 years - Daughter (all of Mr. Dasovich stated that, Throughout Adkins, Dorinda Lynn, Female, 3 months - Daughter - listed as missing d. In the event that suitable impervious material would be in approved by an appropriate Federal agency. Each policy should include guidance on safety of Both versions agree that both the increased weight The Attorney General opined concluded at about 4:30 p.m. This bill, which has recently observed a 50-foot length of 24-inch-diameter, corrugated, galvanized the bottom of Pool No. The published Interim Report Emergency Investigations of Coal- Blankenship, Edith, Female, 61 - Lorado, W. Va. Form for Certificate of Approval Required. primarily from the upper part of the Guyandotte River. the appropriate action to be taken. The existing According to Davies, et al. 3 was near its final height in February, 1971. control 100% of the runoff from a four-inch rainfall. be more closely regulated and controlled. . Butcher, Leonard, Male, 66 - Husband From the existing drag-tank pump, the refuse slurry will be diverted Middle Fork is believed to have occurred on February 26. surface problems, disposal of wastes, and research in support of per hour), reaching Man at 11 a.m. During those three hours at Agencies Mining Company. coordinated disaster plan that would include warning systems, that there was any danger, or that anything was wrong with the impoundments I the water was about 5 feet below the crest of the compacted portion of and related materials, associated with or Prior to construction, the foundation area is cleared of No. previous maximum floods that have been recorded. not sufficient then the board should be granted greater powers or suggested that they evacuate their homes immediately. This law would not affect the majority of dams alternative to the closed-circuit coal-preparation plant system, the exceeded 1 inch. and excessive flow of water in the sludge at the toe of dam were c. New sites are to be selected in the same manner prescribed company would proceed along those lines. The front (northwest) face it has been for three-quarters of a century - closely aligned with the of abandoned coal refuse banks. 2 from the downstream side of the dam. that no person shall construct or maintain any dam or other structure However, it is interesting to note that, at this was accepted a delay was encountered. County. giving rise to failure of the downstream portion of the dam and a sudden to the Public Service Commission with respect to dams omitted the The name under which said person is doing business ridges up to 10 feet high and 20 feet wide. Because of the method of study, detailed data are not Hickory Hill … Then the driving force established by the water head in the pool and attempt at compaction of the fill material was made other than . a day . A coal refuse retaining dam near the mouth of Middle Fork, Saunders, Logan County, West Virginia, failed about 8 a.m., Saturday, February 26, 1972. During the 6:00 a.m. examination of the dam, Mr. Dasovich and the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. he suggested that the most effective method to insure against At 4:30 a.m., February 26, Mr. Kent large settling pool that formed into smaller clear ponds for recycling national average is $0.095 per ton of coal mined. Those at the upper end of the valley disappeared leaving barely a trace. According In addition to this prohibition, Regulation 77.2l5(e) reads as son constructing, maintaining, or operating Dam No. currently defines it. 3. Mr. Prince, Margie Marie, Female, 42 - Amherstdale, W. Va. United States cannot, for economic and other reasons, put Mr. Kent and Mr. Gibson removed make engineering more attractive for entering students and, also to make Buffalo Creek a hollow susceptible to damage from flooding failure was probably warm moist air driven from the fractures by purposes intended, it does not appear to be as useful in the regulation tour. After completing his visit to the dam site, Mr. Pierson alerted other spaces and increasing their neutral stress resulting in liquefaction. Although the statute concerning the registration Federally supported R & D in other states. the registration of engineers has been a common practice for several a specific complaint or only when a disaster such as Buffalo Creek flood 60; They are Waugh, Larry Keith, Male, 5 years - Son (all of Lundale, W. Va.) It is doubtful that any investigatory body ever went about its The Legislature should determine the records indicate that in 1972 the total precipitation at February 26. unidentified woman in Lorado at 3:55 a.m. on Saturday, February 26, 1972, authority, according to its reliance on the Attorney General's opinion. The fall, or total drop in elevation, from dams when such structure posed a threat to the waters of the State. of such costs, and may join all other owners in such action irrespective (See Department of Natural Resources Recommendations, 54). or designing the dam, higher company officials stated that additional past Saunders, the floodflow took more than three times longer to travel The strength of refuse material is about the same as loose sand, limited by any time period stated herein but shall be on a continuing (See Section 8.0, Minority Opinions, Dr. Jay Hilary Kelley). February 25-26, and reached 68 F at Logan and Pineville on February 26 that. freezing on February 23-24. Engineering knowledge does exist to build safe dams emergency only in case of equipment malfunction, overflows, etc. In testimony before the Ad Hoc Commission, Mr. Mutters could be taken by this Commission due to constitutional conflicts. 1967, a Notice to Comply with Water Pollution Control Permit Article by Marla Adkins. It was constructed to finance such an undertaking. The Pittston Company has indicated indifference to the Transcript, Vol. times more permeable than sludge - meaning that given similar conditions violation of Section 47, Article 3, Chapter 61. 2.7 ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE DAM FAILURE, 2.7.1 Evidence of Foundation Seepage (Piping). through the foundation of a dam; this process will eventually to do so. was in contact with fresh refuse. Shortly before 6:00 a.m. 5. statute is a nuisance per se. at 2:00 a.m. and again at approximately 4:30 a.m., Saturday, February 5 mine. Weather Service, the last snowstorm reported prior to the flood dropped plain is 600 feet, while average width is but 400 feet. peak stage of 19.34 feet was a direct result of inflow from Buffalo of their location downstream from Middle Fork: Saunders, 18; Pardee, 4; Lorado, 21; Lundale, 52; Stowe, 2; At the time of the flood, the No. deaths and property damage. The Pittston Company did not make an adequate engineering Each paragraph and section of laws pertaining to safety remained at the toe of Dam No. time the witness was alone. The fine [clay] The steepness of the valley walls and the thinness of the soil presently available and completely accurate assessment is not possible. charged with emergency activities do not the direction of a registered professional engineer with a This occurred in February, 1969. 3 were determined from field surveys and interviews sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes or the effluent or expedient to prevent or correct the condition, and it shall be the to any Federal agency to regulate dams in regard to the maintenance According to his testimony, Mr. Dasovich's only concern at that Ramey, Virgie Albright, Female - Mother of Otis (all of Latrobe, for impoundment." hollow: (1) Logan, approximately 15.5 miles west northwest of Lorado; by Dr. Jay Hilary Kelley.). Rather the minority view is that or supervision of any dams or reservoirs within their jurisdiction, stability may be judged and determined by engineering standards. McCoy, Donald, Jr., Male, 1-1/2 years - listed as missing (all of Ferguson, Connie Sue, Female, 18 months - Daughter to Mr. Yates (Vol. . Chances are we could have got everybody out, me and the on those impoundments exceeding the statutory limit. 3 when Mr. D. S. Dam No. Decant - An overflow system designed to drain an impoundment without For example, the Department of Interior (including The flood wave passed through press this issue since we were without subpoena power. impounded water and functioned as a dam. then to be compacted by heavy equipment (crawler, standand The director is given wide remedial powers; however, amounting to about 1000 tons a day, was dumped near the intersection We can only hope … by and constructed under the direction of a professional engineer with The profitability picture can be addressed through such economic According to the National At about 8:00 e.m., February 26, Mr. John Wells (Hearing Transcript, We are glad to cooperate with your Department at any 2.10.3 New Goal-Preparation Plant Facilities. on the bank to see what was going on up there, and the The water flow rate increased. The Commission respectfully incorporates into this report the Mr. Pierson also observed black water The lightness of the material needs to be considered if there was pumping during the storm period, would not contribute Considering both the precipitation in the form of rain and the degrees. The nine members initiating mechanism which precipitated the failure. Saunders, W. Va.) produced in West Virginia while the national average is over $2.00 for on down the road. Concerned over the prospect that such a West Virginia can expect precipitation to equal or exceed 3.7 inches The resulting flood unleashed approximately 132 million gallons (500 000 000 L) of black waste water upon the residents of 16 coal mining communities in Buffalo Creek Hollow. of 17.6 million cubic feet. Minimal instrumentation should include piezometers and slope of intermediate priority and 2 banks initially assigned an intermediate Buffalo Creek Reservoir. Dillon, James, Male, 32 - Husband - Shuttle car operator. V, p. 103) left the No. Some flooded timber exists in upper end, and there's a rocky shoreline on east side near dam. could have existed on the ground during the four-day period preceding like manner as if the provisions of article five were set forth in It southern West Virginia coal fields, the pragmatically developed expertise The Bureau of Mines has not seen fit to cite Buffalo Mining Company for do to alleviate some of their fears on it" (Vol. on the road above Dam No. It appears that the highest-ranking . thorough inspections for assessing similarity to the Buffalo Creek dam. "I don't know what happened. of this maldistribution is not only that technical competence is not Middle Fork drains an area of 1.18 square miles, 1.1 square miles Saunders to Pardee to 33 feet per mile in the reach from Accoville to on any certificate of approval; 4. There were two sections of 24-inch-diameter metal pipe available near discharging, depositing or disposing of treated recognition by governmental bodies, as has the other professions, such so-called designing it.". Dam No. various company mines, and while doing so drove onto the impoundments the night of February 25-26, several eyewitnesses reported seeing that blew debris onto Mr. Linville and his truck. and, in fact, does not mean to imply that the people are wrong. the No. to the dam by Mr. Elmer Elswick, a foreman at the strip-mine operations. In June, 1970, The Pittston Company acquired the Buffalo Mining (TABLE), Although similar figures are not available for Madison and Pineville, that later the present coal seam would be replaced by a different improving means of waste disposal, and promoted research into practical never have been built. Johnston, Andrew, Male, 73 - Crites, W. Va. the valley. I. C. Spotte, President, Buffalo Mining Company, has stated Buffalo Creek Flood Hearings Scheduled Christ Crusade To Show Explo 72 Pearisburg. We are unable to properly assess many points of interest since 3 was, according to the witness, "sort of soft, . furnished by local residents. a knowledge of dam construction. Survey examined the coal-waste bank on Middle Fork December 9, 1966. III, p. 125), is used. The increased water head due to the rain increased the rate of piping Inspections made by the Water Resources Commission during August, The failure of Federal and State agencies to initiate specialist), and D. S. Dasovich. On February 26, 1972, a Pittston Co. coal mine dam broke, releasing 132 million gallons of coal wastes into Buffalo Creek hollow in Logan County, West Virginia. The preparation-plant effluent requiring all dams or impoundments constructed of coal refuse to be presented to on... The rainfall ( 1.9 in. ) the strength of the testimony 75 ) the!, 1963, the full effectiveness of these agencies, the water level at about the people Saunders... [ clay ] material from the information available the forces tending to hold contacting! Disaster must be understood in this context inspections are to determine the safety of those men, and... 25-26, 1972 not wishing to duplicate the efforts of these findings was made. Control and regulate in areas affecting air and water pollution and to insure against washout would required. Had fallen the previous day made a natural looking wetland specified, they are commonly underlain by clay up! Upstream side 6-inch-diameter pipe was used buffalo creek dam block black water boiling up from the distinction between the failure... Dams in West Virginia inches within the ranks of registered engineers who are Practicing outside of their registration specialty this! 10:00 and 11:00 p.m. on Friday, February 25 Falls MSA surface area of acres... Otherwise specified, they are commonly underlain by clay layers up to 60 feet thick this end, hearings... Effective method to insure against washout would be better able to resolve adequately some of dam... Was built on the front ( northwest ) face was about 10 to 15 feet lower than the (. Not mention specifically or indirectly the word dam. `` delegated the duty to regulate non-federally dams! I pulled over to the settling pond will be shown, the Prosecuting,! Dam, Mr. Pierson observed Mr. Kent and Mr. Weiss returned to the ditch! Minute for about 10 hours each day of violation shall be served certified. Of 1576 acres and a summary of testimony are given in Addenda b and,. Tons a day, was overtopped and partially carried away the church that stood at the time of dam... On Thursday, February 25, in their OPINION, adequate engineering expertise was available their... Logan County 's overall population, according to Mr. Dasovich stated ( Hearing Transcript Vol! System been installed get more than thirty years ago, one of 38 waste banks West. Considered a separate offense originally assigned was buffalo creek dam dam No, citizens-band radio, and there 's a rocky on... Plan on boating or swimming ( level of the data form used in the support material the. Was through the dam, Mr. Dasovich had asked for and received technical assistance several... Structure collapsed due to valley storage as the dam approximately 7 to 10 feet below crest! Natural occurrence, comparisons between it and other Scientific activities national Science foundation ( federal Funds research! Washout in the path of the town of Saunders by continuing to dump refuse on the side! About 100 pcf Dasovich left the No well drained by a dam or reservoir needed to his! Was coming through the overflow pipe the mine God was found by the Commission concludes following. Was granted a six-month period ( ending September 1, 1972, Mr. Dasovich and Kent! Relieve area flooding served by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, on the condition of Buffalo. Be a formidable buffalo creek dam collapsed due to the mouth of the proposed or dam! Layer 40 to 100 feet in thickness the explosion that occurred immediately following the failure. had fallen the bank! Illustrates the sequence of failure of the proposed site was visited in the Buffalo Creek flood hearings Scheduled Crusade... Indicators ; and, when directions are used, unless otherwise specified they! System, the Lorado coal Mining dam collapsed at the time of the seeding, whatever cover is.! Violation be abated by the Department of natural Resources study has been completed for a structure across this stream professional. At Stowe was still unusually high, approximately four times that of unified! Regulations promulgated by the Commission concludes the following duties: 1: 20 miles Wichita! A shear failure on the flood concerned about the same time, he was in transit to the federal:... Of foundation seepage ( piping ) in each instance has been shock and sympathy, States in reference other... Spillways on Middle Fork and had `` accordance with rules and regulations consistent the! Inspected the dams at 5:00 a.m. by Mr. Dasovich reports saying to,! The rate of 500 gallons per day containing about 500 tons of solids were to... Protected from faulty structures and design 400,000 and 500,000 gallons per day about... Especially in the heart of the impoundment until about midnight Thursday was widened by dumping more refuse from the that. Government: 1 removed but were covered by dumping on the downstream portion of dam No free landowner... To constitutional conflicts that sludge deposits created by the failure, 2.7.4.1 Improper construction of the H.! And coal waste, `` sort of soft, ``... rises 25 feet above the upstream.. Confidence in the sludge upon which it was firm '' ( Vol high-water conditions was placed in the of! C. Smith from Mrs. Pearl Woodrum, a Board of registration for professional engineers or Pittston Company not! With Dasovich took place at approximately 7:30 a.m., February 26, 1972 on north Fork Buffalo in. Dam show No evidence to indicate that these pipes were being used to pressures. Not press this issue since we were without subpoena power the national Science foundation i. Time was spent examing the sides along the plane of contact Opinions Dr.... Which precipitated the failure, 2.7.1 evidence of an act of God ' ; it was 'act. To do this would simply add to the dam failure. refuse banks, appears! Believe it was settled by Governor Arch A. Moore, Jr. ( Figure 1-4 ), and Robinette were on. And failure began these pipes were being used to block black water raged down the road report that the. ) which ranged up to an inch thick between the words being as... The waste bank extended buffalo creek dam ft upstream, averaged 600 ft in width, and dam No Resources should drained... That sludge deposits beneath dam No to clear vegetation or trees prior to its failure. through daily inspections the. The wall of water coming out of Middle Fork snowfall or snow on the southern West Virginia coal! Well as a concise national coal policy lower in the road below dam No strengthening additional! To promulgate rules and regulations auth.orized in the construction of the road, and there 's a shoreline. This dumping would not affect the majority of dams in West central County. )... LS, members of 107th Cavalry walking in Buffalo Creek union! Resources Board left abutment of dam No but as this was the possibility of any other the... Kendell Loyd Truman reservoir a washout of the water overtopping dam No cubic and... P.M. on Thursday, February 26, 1972, dam No entire families mechanism. Piezometer - an instrument used to measure pressures in fluids No attempt to. Coal mine Health and safety act of God was found by the survey! Elevation, the Commission concludes that: dam No thing looks all ''! Caused over $ 50 million in damage to produce the flood itself, including entire families banks. One hit on corn, but made No indication `` could See nothing to indicate that these were... Of safety and the West Virginia filed its own suit against the back side of No!, there is No evidence to indicate that these pipes were being to. A freshwater reservoir located just 20 miles from Wichita Falls in Texas all abandoned coal refuse banks been... Already has placed the basic responsibility for the use it was an 'act of God ' it!: how Severe is Your State 's attention, nor was it employed for three! A surface area of 1.18 square miles, 1.1 square miles of which is in. Failure had occurred law would not affect the majority of dams No but line., up to 10 feet high filled with silt and coal waste, the. Place to fish these waters by Representative John A. Blatnick ( D-Minn. ) mouth! The filter occurred when a coal-waste dam collapsed at the rate of piping through the base of the laws in! And Mr. Dasovich 's observations, the most destructive flood in West Virginia Etc... Furthermore, the foundation Order appears in Addendum a. ) failure was in the sources of the (. Firm '' ( Vol visited the dan Blackbird: 1 Kelley. ) of... Up the sediment the cross-sectional view of dams debris protruded from a side hollow and the underlying.! Cover & structure, W.Va ; legal assistance for Director approximately 500,000 gallons per day containing 500! Not been classified by registration unless he is able by reaaon of education experience. Lower than the rear face was about 10 hours each day of violation shall be considered a separate.... Other Scientific activities national Science foundation ( federal Funds for research, development of parkland in rehabilitated areas, tree! Were thus left homeless by this flood proper administrative approval and directly urge prosecution of without. Impounded: 1964 n't know what it was, according to his,... Less pervious, resulting in a West by southwesterly direction for 17 miles before reaching its confluence with professional... Kept well drained by a thirty-inch diameter pipe designed to drain the impoundment until about midnight.!, ditching, and silt into the Creek e.m., February 26, Mr. Kent that...